Flowering Plants

This gallery includes native species and my favorite garden flowers. Look for information with each photo. I live in plant zone 6. I’m using the most common name although sometimes it might be the Latin name.

Threadleaf or Arkansas Bluestar blooms in April, gets about 6-feet wide, 3-feet tall and turns golden yellow in the fall.
Threadleaf or Arkansas Bluestar blooms in April, gets about 6-feet wide, 3-feet tall and turns golden yellow in the fall.
Baptisa australis var. minor, dwarf False Indigo, is like its larger variety with beautiful flowers.
Baptisa australis var. minor, dwarf False Indigo, is like its larger variety with beautiful flowers.
Bellwort is native plant that blooms in the spring.
Bellwort is native plant that blooms in the spring.
Bergenia "Baby Doll" is a shade-loving semi-groundcover that blooms in March. My plants don't flower every year.
Bergenia “Baby Doll” is a shade-loving semi-groundcover that blooms in March. My plants don’t flower every year.
Celandine Poppy is a native that blooms from late March until December. It spreads through "exploding" seed pods.
Celandine Poppy is a native that blooms from late March until December. It spreads through “exploding” seed pods.
Clustered Bellflower (Campanula glomerata) isn't just a beautiful flower, it's a groundcover.
Clustered Bellflower (Campanula glomerata) isn’t just a beautiful flower, it’s a groundcover.
Combination of Creeping Phlox "Candy Stripe" and Grape Hyacinths - it's a long-lived plant.
Combination of Creeping Phlox “Candy Stripe” and Grape Hyacinths – it’s a long-lived plant.
Grape hyacinths grow through a peanut shell left in the ground by a squirrel.
Grape hyacinths grow through a peanut shell left in the ground by a squirrel.
Korean Lilac is a small, long-lives shrub. The fragrant blooms pass all to quickly! Our plant is almost 30 years old.
Korean Lilac is a small, long-lives shrub. The fragrant blooms pass all to quickly! Our plant is almost 30 years old.
Ranunculus is a colorful flower that looks like a poppy.
Ranunculus is a colorful flower that looks like a poppy.
Solomon's Seal is a native plant with pendulous flowers in the spring.
Solomon’s Seal is a native plant with pendulous flowers in the spring.

Dolomite – an often under-appreciated mineral

Dolomite is another common mineral in sedimentary rock. It’s a carbonate mineral CaMg(CO3)2. Crystals are usually rhombic though growth can create a saddle-shape crystal. Color is commonly pearly white, but it can be pink, yellow, orange, brown or red. Those with the reddish tinge have iron in the atomic structure and are called ferroan dolomite.

Corydon Crushed Stone Quarry in Harrison Co., Indiana, is a top 3 or 4 American locality for its pink color. Intensity is variable and the color disappears if the specimen is left outside for a period of months or years.

This specimen I won as a door prize at my very first Kyana Geological society meeting I attended as a "Pebble Pup" in 1969.
This specimen I won as a door prize at my very first Kyana Geological society meeting I attended as a “Pebble Pup” in 1969.
This pink dolomite has small calcite crystals that formed later.
This pink dolomite has small calcite crystals that formed later.
A close-up of dolomite is saddle-shaped crystals, colored by iron and sprinkled with manganese oxide blebs.
A close-up of dolomite is saddle-shaped crystals, colored by iron and sprinkled with manganese oxide blebs.
Intense pink dolomite from the upper vuggy zone (often has bigger crystals)
Intense pink dolomite from the upper vuggy zone (often has bigger crystals)
Dolomite encrusting calcite; from the upper vuggy zone.
Dolomite encrusting calcite; from the upper vuggy zone

Harrodsburg, Monroe Co., Indiana, is a famous collecting locality for geodes. One of my favorites is the dolomite with a little iron giving it a vivid color.

Ferroan and regular dolomite on quartz in a geode
Ferroan and regular dolomite on quartz in a geode

Sellersburg Quarry, Clark Co., Indiana, has rare vugs of dolomite, calcite and pyrite in the Jeffersonville Limestone.

Dolomite in pale, pearly curved crystals. This is the best specimen Alan collected.

Lebanon Quarry, Marion Co., Kentucky, has pale dolomite crystals in a dolostone breccia and in rare calcareous nodules in the New Albany Shale.

Light pink-brown dolomite with needle-like crystals of goethite in a New Albany Shale calcareous nodule..
Light pink-brown dolomite with needle-like crystals of goethite in a New Albany Shale calcareous nodule.

Atkin’s Quarry

This quarry is located in Jeffersonville, Indiana, is the closest quarry to downtown Louisville. It is closed to collectors (don’t even ask) since late 2009.

The bottom of the quarry is Laurel Dolostone (Middle Silurian) and in ascending order: Waldron Shale, Louisville Limestone, Jeffersonville Limestone (Middle Devonian), Speed Limestone, North Vernon (= Sellersburg) Limestone, Beechwood Limestone, and basal New Albany Shale.

Unless noted, these photos were taken during a geology club visit on July 2004.

Looking west from the top of the quarry in 2004. Note slabs of New Albany Shale in the foreground.
Fossil rich chert (rock made of quartz) near the top of the quarry. This chert is rich in fossils including brachiopods, mollusks, and trilobites.
Deep weathering of Devonian limestone forming a clay-rich subsoil. Limertone weathers red – it’s called terra rosa (red earth).
Atkin’s Quarry had deep weathering solution features in the North Vernon (Sellersburg) Limestone. These features were created by sulfuric acid formed by ground water + decomposing pyrite located in the basal New Albany Shale.
Pseudoatrypa brachiopods are seen weathering out of limestone. They are an abundant fossil in Clark County.
Thin Tropidoleptus carinatus brachiopods in subsoil – notice how they were buried and eroded together.
For a short time, a rich deposit of Aulocystis corals were found eroding out of the limestone. These were still attached and uncollectable, but plenty of loose specimens were found. These are Aulocystis frutecosa (Davis). The area was blasted through not long after our visit in 2004.
Mud-covered fossils collected directly from the subsoil where the limestone decomposed.
The same tray after spraying the mud away with a hose. There are some spectacular corals here! We we fortunate to visit when this coral-rich area was exposed.
At the quarry road entrance: Walnut Ridge Cemetery with a “Dead End” sign! How’s that for appropriate? The roads were improved and this sign no longer exists. Too bad.

Roadcuts and Quarries Photo Gallery

Annotated with site information, including geological / paleontological / mineralogical. Many quarries listed are closed or no longer allow collectors. This album serves to document geological locations – not to provide locations for you to visit. Assume all active mines to be closed to casual collecting.

Atkin’s Quarry in Jeffersonville, Indiana, was visited between 1994 and 2009. Access was curtailed with new management and policies in late 2009. Click on photo to see more.

Photo of the Waldron shale in the Atkins Quarry pre-2009
Photo of the Waldron shale in the Atkins Quarry pre-2009

Hastie’s Quarries, Hardin Co., Illinois

Panoramic photo inside Hastie's Quarry before I replaced my Ford Ranger 4x4.
Panoramic photo inside Hastie’s Quarry

Speed Quarry, Clark Co., Indiana (Operated by Louisville Cement, then Essroc, then Italicementi, and now Heidelburg Cement, it will be closing soon if not already.)

View of expansive Speed Cement Quarry
View of expansive Speed Cement Quarry

Annabel Lee Mine – A fluorite mine in Hardin Co., Illinois that I visited with Chris Anderson in May, 1987. We spent an 8-hour shift documenting the mine operations and geology.

Fisheye lens photo of the Annabel Lee mine headframe in 1987. Chris Anderson photo.
Fisheye lens photo of the Annabel Lee mine headframe in 1987. Chris Anderson photo.

Coral Ridge / General Shale Brick Company, Jefferson Co., Kentucky – The type locality for the Coral Ridge pyrite-replaced fauna described by James Conkin in his master’s thesis published by the Paleontological research Institute in 1957. Many fossils were found over the years. The site became inaccessible in mid-2010 as our contact and many employees were laid off due to the 2008-9 recession and the lack of home building.

Looking for pyrite-replaced fossils at the General Shale Company outcrops.
Looking for pyrite-replaced fossils at the General Shale Company outcrops.

Additional locations – when I have time!

Boyle Co., Kentucky geode hunting – An area with geodes from smaller than an inch to bigger than 2-feet across. Mostly quartz with minor calcite, hematite, etc.

Cedar Creek Quarry, Bardstown, Kentucky – a limestone quarry (now closed) famous for trilobites in the Laurel dolostone. It also had brachiopods, crinoids, cephalopods, pyrite, calcite and sphalerite.

Carroll Co., Kentucky road cuts – in the Kope Formation, Upper Ordovician, they contain brachiopods, bryozoans, graptolites, mollusks, trilobites, and trace fossils.

Corydon Quarry, Harrison Co., Indiana – famous for superb pink dolomite with calcite of various shades of tan to white, often with inclusions of iron, rarely with millerite or MnO2. Quarry is active and closed to collecting.

Elizabethtown Quarry, Kentucky – a long-closed and now privately owned quarry that we collected 900 crinoids between 1990 – 1994. The scientific papers naming 9 new species were a result. The quarry had diverse Muldraugh, Harrodsburg & Salem Formation faunas.

Hardin Co., Kentucky road cuts – on Hwy 313, from the New Providence Shale to the St. Louis Limestone, Middle Mississippian age. Various fossils and geodes of calcite or gypsum.

Illinois side of the IL-KY fluorspar district (excluding Hastie’s & Annabel Lee mines)

Irvington Quarry, Breckinridge Co., Kentucky – famous for fluorite, calcite with minor quartz and other minerals. Locality owned by Liter’s, Inc. Closed to collectors, though the last time I visited, collecting was hardly worth the effort.

Kentucky side of the IL-KY fluorspar district – numerous old mines primarily dot Crittenden and Livingston Counties. No active mines since the 1960s.

Lebanon Quarry, Marion Co., Kentucky – Multiple quarries in various stages from long to recently abandoned to recently opened. Calcite and Ordovician fossils primarily. Oldest quarry has some Devonian fossils, largely weathered too much to be interesting.

Salem Quarry, Washington Co., Indiana – this closed quarry was famous for geodes with celestine and calcite. Fossils were known but not widely collected in the Mississippian formations.

Nature Photography

Explore the diversity of nature through Alan’s lens*. Infinite diversity in infinite settings!

* And some of my daughter, Emily…

Categories include:

Flowering plants

Exotic looking passion flower
Exotic looking passion flower

Birds

Hoatzins at Lake Shimigi in Peru October 20, 1988
Hoatzins at Lake Shimigi in Peru October 20, 1988

Insects, arachnids and other arthropods

Preying mantis (egg-laden) at the end of a stalk
Preying mantis (egg-laden) at the end of a stalk

Reptiles & amphibians

Eastern box turtle
Eastern box turtle

Mammals

Skunk on the front porch March 2021
Skunk on the front porch March 2021

Fish

Galapagos shark photographed off Oahu, Hawaii in 2007
Galapagos shark photographed off Oahu, Hawaii in 2007

Ecological settings

A school of sergeant major fish in a coral reef in Hawaii.
A school of sergeant major fish in a coral reef in Hawaii.

Weather and Clouds

My favorite weather picture - Cummulo-mammatus clouds at sunset near Marion, KY.
My favorite weather picture – Cummulo-mammatus clouds at sunset near Marion, KY.

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Fossil Identification Guide

These pages illustrate a lot of different kinds of fossils. Within 60 minutes of the Louisville, Kentucky, area, geological time periods represented include: Upper Ordovician, Silurian, Middle – Upper Devonian, and Mississippian (Lower Carboniferous). The Pennsylvanian (Upper Carboniferous) is a bit beyond. The Pleistocene is represented by sand & gravel, loess and cave deposits.

Consider all guides to be “works in-progress. Images and information will be added.

Brachiopods               

Bryozoans                  

Corals                        

Echinoderms              

Mollusks

Sponges                

Trace Fossils

Trilobites & Crustaceans         

Misc. Fossils (Plants, wor犀利士 ms, microfossils, problematic, vertebrates)

Waldron Shale Fauna

Cambrictites greenei - a small pyritized goniatite from the Mississippian Coral Ridge fauna of Jefferson Co., KY. Goniatites are ammonoids with undulating sutures.
Cambrictites greenei – a small pyritized goniatite from the Mississippian Coral Ridge fauna of Jefferson Co., KY. Goniatites are ammonoids with undulating sutures.

Miscellaneous Fossils

I’ve collected or traded for a lot of miscellaneous fossils that aren’t diverse enough to list by category. These include fossil plants, vertebrates (mostly fish bone pieces from local bone beds), worms, graptolites, and problematic best rolex gmt master ii replica fossils that may belong to other phyla but are odd examples.

Photos – See each category

Annularia galoides in an ironstone nodule from northern Illinois.
Annularia galoides in an ironstone nodule from northern Illinois.

Preservation Key : C = Calcified, Ph = Phosphatic, P = Pyritized, S = Silicified, 1= w/o, matrix, 2 = w/

matrix

PLANTS                                                  Period or Epoch                  Location                Preservation

Beckerosperma ovalicarpa (seed) Oligocene Oregon C,2

Callixylon newberryi ^ (wood)       Middle Devonian                   IN                           S,1

^ (Almost the oldest petrified wood in the world)

Cederella merrilli (seed) Oligocene Oregon C,2

Various leaves Oligocene Oregon C,2

Various leaves Eoocene Colorado C,2

Malachite-coated lycopods               Pennsylvanian                     Oklahoma                  M,2

Prismostyus sp. (Rhodophyte algae)    Upper Ordovician                   KY                          C,1

Unidentified rhodophyte algae         Middle Mississippian                   KY                          Carbonized, 2

PROBLEMATICA                                           Period                               Location                Preservation

Conularia sp.  (Cnidarid)                   Upper Mississippian                       IN                           Ph,2 (partials)

Paraconularia sp.  (Cnidarid)             Middle Mississippian                     KY                          Ph,1,2

Sphenothallus sp.  (Tube worm?)        Upper Ordovician                       KY                          Carbonized, 2

WORMS                                    Period                  Location                Preservation

Cornulites flexuosus                           Upper Ordovician                          KY                          C,2

Cornulites proprius                              Middle Silurian                             IN                           C,1,2

Gitonia coralophila                             Middle Devonian                           IN                     S,1 (in horn coral)

Palaeoconchus annulatus                   Middle Mississippian                     IN,KY                    C,2

Palaeoconchus nodulatus                     ”                  ”                               IN,KY                    C,2

Preservation: C = Calcified, Ph = Phosphatic, P = Pyritized, S = Silicified, 1= w/o, matrix, 2 = w/ matrix

VERTEBRATES                                Period                  Location                Preservation

Bone bed fish teeth & scales             Middle Devonian                              IN                        Ph,2

Goniopholis sp. (crocodile tooth) Jurassic                              Wyoming               Ph,2

Odontaspis sp. (shark tooth)             Miocene                                        Manoc, Portugal  Ph,1

Orododus simplex                               Middle Mississippian                      KY                     Ph,2

Shark teeth                                            Cretaceous                                    MS                     Ph,1

Shark vertebrae                                    Cretaceous                                    Texas                   Ph,1

MISCELLANEOUS

Colelous tenuicinctum                       Middle Devonian                               IN                       S,C,2

Dictyonema sp. (graptolite)               Middle Silurian                                   IN                 Carbonized, 2

Geniculograptus typicallus                Upper Ordovician                               KY                Carbonized, 2

Tentaculites attentuatus                     Middle Devonian                               ONT                   C,1,2

Tentaculites richmondensis               Upper Ordovician                               IN,KY                  C,2

Tentaculites scalariformis                  Middle Devonian                                IN                        C,2

Assorted Insects                                  Eocene (Green River)                         CO                Carbonized, 2

Preservation Key: C = Calcified, Ph = Phosphatic, P = Pyritized, S = Silicified, 1= w/o, matrix, 2 = w/ matrix

MICROFOSSIL COLLECTIONS

Salem Limestone – Forams, Ostracods, Sponge spicules, Holothuroid sclerites, Brachiopods, Gastropods, Clams, Echinoid spines,  Bryozoans, Blastoids, Crinoid stems, Worms, etc.       Indiana                                  C,1 (shipped in zip-sealed bag)

Coon Creek marl – mollusk rich,             Union Co., Mississippi          C,1 (shipped in zip-sealed bag)

these details

Trilobites and Crustaceans

Trilobites and crustaceans are arthropods, the group that includes arachnids, horseshoe crabs, millipedes, and the like. Arthropods molt as they grow. The result is common fragments and rarer complete animals. (Updated Feb. 10, 2022)

Photos of Trilobites and Other arthropods

Trilobite Calymene breviceps from the Waldron Shale of Clark Co., Indiana.
Calymene breviceps Hall from the Waldron Shale of Clark Co., Indiana.

TRILOBITES   Period                                Location               Preservation

p = pygidium, t = thorax, c = cephalon

Arctinurus occidentalis (Hall) – Waldron Shale, Middle Silurian, Clark Co., IN – C,2

 Arctinurus occidentalis pygidium resembles a palmetto leaf
Arctinurus occidentalis (Hall) pygidium resembles a palmetto leaf

Bumastus sp. – Laurel Formation, Middle Silurian, Bardstown, Nelson Co., KY – C,2

 Bumastus pygidium, a steinkern encrusted with sphalerite crystals
Bumastus pygidium, a steinkern encrusted with sphalerite crystals

Calymene breviceps Hall – Waldron Shale, Middle Silurian, Clark Co., IN – C,2

 Calymene breviceps with pyrite - this was found attached to the floor of the Atkin's Quarry
Calymene breviceps Hall with pyrite – this was found attached to the floor of the Atkin’s Quarry

Cheirurus dilatatus Raymond – Waldron Shale, Middle Silurian, Clark Co., IN – C,2

Cheirurus dilatatus has a spiny pygidium
Cheirurus dilatatus Raymond has a spiny pygidium
 Cheirurus dilatatus has a large glabella
Cheirurus dilatatus (Raymond) has a large glabella

Cryptolithus bellulus Ulrich – a blind trilobite from the Kope Formation, Upper Ordovician, Carrol Co., KY – C,1,2

 Cryptolithus bellulus cephalon with genial spines
Cryptolithus bellulus Ulrich – cephalon interior with genial spines

Eldridgeops sp. (was Phacops) – Sellersburg Limestone, Givetian, Middle Devonian, Clark Co., IN – S,1,2

 Eldridgeops sp. - complete, flat and made of quartz
Eldridgeops sp. – complete, flat and made of quartz
Eldridgeops sp. -  front of molted cephalon on trace fossil showing compound eyes (chert replacement)
Eldridgeops sp. – front of molted cephalon on trace fossil showing compound eyes (chert replacement)

Flexicalymene granulosa Foerste – Kope Formation, Upper Ordovician, Carrol Co., KY – C,1,2

Flexicalymene granulosa - a small enrolled specimen through a microscope. Kope Formation, Upper Ordovician,
Flexicalymene granulosa Foerste – a small enrolled specimen through a microscope.

Glyptambon verrucosus (p,c)            Middle Silurian                                  IN                          C,2

Kaskia chesterensis  (p)                      Upper Mississippian                         IN                          C,2

Litotix armatus (p,c)                            Middle Silurian                                IN                           C,2

Philibole conkini Hessler – Coral Ridge Member, New Providence Shale, Lowermost Middle Mississippian, Jefferson Co., KY – C,P,1,2

Philibole conkini Hessler - Coral Ridge Member, New  Providence  Shale, Lowermost Middle Mississippian, cephalon view
Philibole conkini – cephalon
Philibole conkini Hessler - Coral Ridge Member, New  Providence  Shale, Lowermost Middle Mississippian, cephalon and pygidium
Philibole conkini – cephalon and pygidium
Philibole conkini Hessler - Coral Ridge Member, New  Providence  Shale, Lowermost Middle Mississippian, thorax and pygidium
Philibole conkini – thorax and pygidium

Sthenarocalymene celebra (Raymond) – Laurel and Louisville Limestones, Middle Silurian, Jefferson & Nelson Cos., KY – C,1,2

 Sthenarocalymene celebra - steinkern with manganese stain
Sthenarocalymene celebra (Raymond) – steinkern with manganese stain

Trimurus delphinocephalus (Green) – Waldron Shale, Middle Silurian, Clark Co., IN – C,2

Trimurus delphinocephalus cephalon
Trimurus delphinocephalus (Green) – cephalon
Trimurus delphinocephalus thorax and  pygidium, prepped by Tom Johnson
Trimurus delphinocephalus (Green) – thorax and pygidium, prepped by Tom Johnson

Trilobite hash: C. bellus, F. granulosa, Acidapsis, Ceraurus, Isotelus, and other fossils, Up. Ordovician, KY, C,2

CRABS / OSTRACODS

Dakoticancer australus (crab)           Upper Cretaceous                           MS                          C,1

Paguristes whitteni (crab)                  Upper Cretaceous                          MS                          C,1

Paraparchites sp. (Ostracod)          Middle Mississippian                          KY                          C,2

Unidentified ostracods               Late Eocene or early Oligocene       Colorado                   Carb,2

Trace Fossils

Trace fossils are evidence of action by living creatures. Examples include locomotion, feeding, nesting, excretions, etc. The division of paleontology that studies trace fossils is called “ichnology.”

Trace Fossil Photos

 Acrothoracid barnacle holes in horn coral Zaphrentites spinulosa (Edwards & Haime)
Acrothoracid barnacle holes in horn coral Zaphrentites spinulosa (Edwards & Haime)

TRACE FOSSILS                              Period                              Location              Preservation

Acrothoracid barnacle holes in coral Upper Mississippian     KY                          C,2

Bored brachiopods (Inflatia)       Upper Mississippian              KY                          C,1,2

Bored rugose corals                            Middle Devonian         IN,KY                    S,1

Bored stromatoporoids                          ”           ”                   IN,KY                    S,1

Catellocaulis vellata                           Upper Ordovician           KY            C,1 (in bryozoan)

Chondrites sp.                                          ”           ”                  KY                        C,1

Fish coprolite                                Cretaceous                British Columbia     C,2

Sanctum laurentiensis                       Upper Ordovician           KY               C,1 (in bryozoan)

Scalarituba missouriensis                  Middle Mississippian         KY                   P,1 (3-D)

Unidentified 3-D tubular struct.        Middle Devonian                IN                           S,1

Various feeding traces                        Middle Mississippian        KY                       P,1 (3-D)

Various traces                                      Upper Ordovician            KY                          C,2

Various traces                                      Upper Mississippian        KY                          C,2

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